Reclamation of land throughout areas affected by the mining operation
is carried out in a number of phases before, during and after mining
operation ceases in each area.
Initially top soil is removed prior to mining and either used to provide
initial cover to overburden dumps on a progressive basis or is stored
in topsoil banks for later placement. As overburden dumps are
progressively built they are contoured to minimize slope levels and to
follow the original contours as close as possible. During this period,
drop structures and extensive water drainage systems are incorporated
into the reclaimed areas to assist in erosion control as well as to direct
water run-off into settling ponds to allow sediment separation and
pH control prior to release into surrounding waterways.
As soon as the filling and contouring work is
completed planting is carried out, either manually
or by using truck mounted seed spraying systems
called hydro-seeding. This seeding work is carried
out as soon as possible as this cover is essential in
minimizing erosion while second stage planting
Manual planting is only for fast growing seedlings while hydro-seeding uses the seeds of grasses, covercrops (legumes) and fast growing plants mixed in containers with fertilizer, other additional material and water, and then sprayed on the surface of reclamation area ready for planting.
Once the revegation process is stable and there is sufficient cover to minimise the chance of erosion, slower growing secondary vegetation is planted including various timber species and crops which can enhance the soil while at the same time continuing to eliminate erosion through continued spreading of roots.
In some areas Adaro has provide rehabilitated land to local communities for agricultural purposes and to date Adaro has worked with these communities on a number of projects including cultivation of vegetables, orchards and other commercial crops. The company is also invoved in a number of research and development projects for better management of environmental rehabilitation particularly in developing various crops for the production of biodiesel. The largest of these is with Komatsu of Japan where 10 hectares of rehabilitated land has been planted with Jatropha whose seeds can be processed into biodiesel. A pilot scale refining plant is already under construction and will be producing biodiesel by mid 2011. This will be mixed with diesel fuel and used in heavy equipment in the mining operation.
||Project to Date
| Rehabilitation (ha)
| Land Disturbed - Mine (ha)
| Land Disturbed - Other (ha)
| Net Land Disturbed (ha)
Water quality and run-off control is a critical part of the environmental management of the mining operations to ensure that local streams and rivers are not contaminated and that soil erosion is eliminated. Adaro has implemented a comprehensive system of water run-off control and treatment to ensure that processed water meets the required environmental quality level.
Waste water from rainfall and ground water in the open cut mine areas is drained into specially prepared sumps and is continuously pumped from these into a permanent drainage system which feeds into high capacity ponds for containment before chemical processing. From there water is fed to a whole series of settling and treatment ponds which surround the mine area and now have a total land area exceeding 450 hectares with a water management capacity of 6 million cubic meters and are designed to handle the drainage water into the open cut mining areas that is generated by an annual rainfall of 3,000 mm.
In the main settling ponds, the water is is treated with flocculants and coagulants to remove suspended solids which separate and sink
to the bottom of the ponds. The clear water from this process then passes through treatment ponds where it is chemically treated to ensure correct chemical and pH balance before being released into local waterways.
Waste water which originates from coal stockpiles around the mining operations is fed into fine coal traps to release coal solids after which this water enters the main waste water treatment system for final processing.
Water quality monitoring is carried out through all phases of treatment with specific emphasis on pH, biochemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and iron sulphates.
Adaro has taken this water processing a step further by the establishment of an additional water treatment plant that is now producing drinking quality water and which is not only being used as drinking water by the company and contractors but is also being pumped through a pipeline installed by Adaro to a number of surrounding communities.
AIR QUALITY CONTROL
Adaro undertakes extensive and continuous air monitoring around the mining operations and along the entire length of the coal haul road to Kelanis to ensure that methods being used to control dust levels are effective at meeting all required regulations up to international standards and minimizing the impact on the local communities surrounding the operations.
Dust control within the mine and areas where coal is stockpiled is carried out primarily through water spraying from mobile tankers and fixed spraying points with frequency of watering being adjusted to take into account seasonal differences in rainfall. Additionally, agglomerating agents in solution are sprayed onto the static coal stockpiles at Kelanis as an additional form of dust control.
Since the sealing of the 75 kilometer coal haul road between the mine and Kelanis water dust levels have been effectively reduced to the point that no water spraying is required, however strict monitoring
is still undertaken.